Исследовательская лаборатория: КРЫМСКАЯ КОНФЕРЕНЦИЯ

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06.06.2013, 16:35

Bontsevich N.

the candidate of historical sciences, associate professor

(Russia, Saratov)




Yalta Conference, 1945: actual issues of history, law studies, political science, culture studies and philosophy / materials of the international scientific conference Yalta-45/13 (Simferopol, Ukraine 23-27 April, 2013 ) / edited by Oleg K. Shevchenko . – Simferopol: publishing house К.О.Ш., 2013. – P. 136-138/

The present paper contains an analysis of the content of the Henry Luce’s press relating the Yalta conference. Exploring the most important information channel responsible for making people and events images give us the key for understanding principle things about public opinion making in the American society. Henry Luce – the chief of the most influential media imperia «Time Inc.» has never been the sympathizer of the soviet regime but since the beginning of the World War II felt obliged not to depict the USSR and soviet people through the prism of deep seated stereotypes. On the contrary his contribution to the common cause of running to supportive mood toward Soviet Ally in the American society was great. It is important to emphasis that Luce’s press readership numbered more than 40 millions, which is quarter of the whole population. But nearer the final stage of Nazi fighting harder it has been for Luce to hold in check his true feelings toward the USSR.

Leading American periodicals of various political orientations estimated the Allies meeting at Yalta and its aftermath for world community highly positively as a whole. Especially it can be referred to liberal American press. Walter Lippmann said, «There has been no more impressive international conference in our time». As for the «Life» it mainly expressed its affiliation with the positive summing up.

Of course, Luce chose rather smooth the most questionable and tense situations than reveal his real attitude to the event he analyzed. First of all, he made an attempt to present «Moscow’s puppet Lublin government as the nucleus of a new provisional government broadened to include exiled and underground Poles». Apparently the principle view the «Life» editors intended to imbed into mass consciousness was that future polish election would be free and unfettered.   

The second problem to which Luce and his team wanted to attract public’s attention was problem of territories which the USSR claimed to obtain in Europe. According to the treaties the Allies uphold the soviet pretension to the area east of the Curzon Line. In practice the border got back to the status as for the time of Poland partition between the USSR and Germany in 1939 in accordance with the Soviet-German Treaty of friendship and borders. But the Big Three favored compensating Poland with undefined slice of Germany on the West. In other words, Life’s Editorial tried to stress that there were not even hint on unilateral soviet behavior in Eastern Europe. And even if to suppose that «…Russia may have her own plans for Europe, especially on her borders, she would rather promote them within the Big Three framework than through long-wolf imperialism». That’s exactly why gaining a compromise in Polish subject would mean extremely important «test of how well the Big Three can combine their policies in practice».

Finally summarizing of Big Three meeting at Yalta and reflecting position of Washington political elites of moderate views Luce and his team concluded that Yalta brought more challenges than certainty. That is why the principal achievement of the meeting, following Life, was firm claim of the USA for participation in European affairs after longstanding isolation period. The President Roosevelt’s message before Congress after returning from Yalta was the vivid confirmation of Life’s anticipations: «We shall have to take the responsibility for world collaboration or we shall have to bear the responsibility for another world conflict».

Therefore presenting the Yalta meeting of the Big Three to the American public Henry Luce took a moderate stand in its results and prospects of the superpowers postwar cooperation evaluation. The tone of his periodicals was distinct in less enthusiasm in comparison with the liberal press, but at the same time Luce couldn’t tell freely about his worries concerning prospects of the superpowers postwar cooperation due to political moment.

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