Исследовательская лаборатория: КРЫМСКАЯ КОНФЕРЕНЦИЯ

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06.06.2013, 16:22

Shevchenko О.[1]

M. A. (History), PhD in Philosophy

Lector of Crimean University for Humanities

(Ukraine, Yalta)



Yalta Conference, 1945: actual issues of history, law studies, political science, culture studies and philosophy / materials of the international scientific conference Yalta-45/13 (Simferopol, Ukraine 23-27 April, 2013 ) / edited by Oleg K. Shevchenko . – Simferopol: publishing house К.О.Ш., 2013. – P. 138-143. 

In February, 1945, there occurred an event, that left a scar in the world history – the meeting of «the Great Men» in Yalta: the President of the USA F. Roosevelt, the prime-minister of the Great Britain W. Churchill and the marshal of the Soviet Union I. Stalin. This event burnt the consciousness and lives of millions of people in Europe and Asia, reshuffled dozens of political regimes like the card batch and changed the borders of dozens of States. Many wrote about it since the publication of the results of the confernce… But I am willing to concede I can depart from the custom. I shall not concern the delicate political aspects, that are used to quiver in the ideological breeze of Washington, London, Warsaw, Moscow.

I shall try to draw my attention not to the powerful noblemen or honored leaders of the East\West, but to the ordinary people, lives of which were changed by the events of the Yalta conference. The people, that were visited by the marshalls, generals, admirals, ministers of the "bourgeois-capitalistic, hostile world”, headed by the President of the USA and the prime-minister of the Great Britain. The people, that the western reader doesn’t know about and can only make up some things about them… naïve things.

These people are the people of the Soviet Union. To be more exact – the people of the small peninsula on the south of Ukraine – the Crimea. The people of the towns and villages – builders, bakers, salespeople, for whom the geographical points of the "Yalta meetings” are not abstract, they are their homeland. And the February of 1945 – that’s not the date in the past, but their natural habitat.

The most rare historic records will tell us about that people, forming their knowledge about americans and british people. For example, we can take the newspapers of that time that count only 2-3 copies[2]. The newspapers, printed in small towns and tiny villages damaged after the war. The newspapers, published by the groups of journalists, who organized their own publications… The newspapers that were printed in the geographically and spiritually nearness to Yalta.

For the first time people of crimean towns knew about the meeting of I. Stalin, F. Roosvelt and W. Churchill in the beginning of February. The people of Feodosia read about that in the leading article of their newspaper "The Victory” on February 9, 1945. 

«The President of the United States of America, the Premier of the Soviet Union and the Prime Minister of the Great Britain accompanied by their chiefs of staff and three ministers of the foreign affairs and other Counsellors are conferring near the Black Sea… The conferences are hold without brakes. The conference began with the military parleys… The  negotiations also concern problems, connected with setting forth lasting alliance…».


In some days came tragic news:


"The airplane with all the members of the Churchill’s Secretariate crashed.”

LONDON, February 8 (TASS). As Rater agensy tells, it is officially announced in London, that in the result of the airplane crash, 12 people died, 5 people are missing and considered to be dead too. 5 more people are injured. The airplane crashed on February 1. Among the dead people there were 6 members of the ministry of the foreign affairs, including one woman, 4 officers of the War Office, one more officer and one pilot. Four members of the crew are missing. All these people were going to the meeting of the Heads of three governments».


On the 8th of February this information was published in London and immediately printed on the first page of the Yalta’s newspaper "Stalin’s banner” on February 10, 1945 and in the Feodosia’s "Victory” on February 11, 1945.

The tension rised, rumors spread. And the culmination were the publications of the events of the conference. During next days the text of the conference got to  absolutely all crimean newspspers:

Simferopol, "Red Crimea” – February 13.

Saki – "Bolshevist banner” – February 15.

Junkoy – "For the Big Crop” – February 15.

Kerch – "Kerch worker” – February 16.

Kirovsk region – "Kirovets” – February 18.

Primorsky region – "Stalin’s way” – February 20.

Immediately, in all parts of crimea people organized political meetings, discussions of such magnificent news. The reaction of people in Crimea without any commentaries are well-shown in the reportings of those years:


«The statement from the Conference of three united governments was met by all the people with the inspiration and delight….People organized a meeting in Evpatoria… They were listening to each word of the historic statement… Everybody wanted to tell their opinion and to share their impressions…»

(«Red banner» February 18, 1945 – Evpatoria).


«The chief of the machine-shop of the red-bannered artel "Mechnic” A. Poshupailo claimed: "The Conference statement of the Heads of the three united governments inspired our crew for the new labour deeds”.

(«The Victory» February 18, 1945 – Feodosia)



Even people of  the specific professions and status were seized with the enthusiasm:


«In the sanatorium "Proletarian” was held a meeting. More than 70 people took part in this meeting. The resume of the Conference were met with applause… Then there was held a meeting of the people who were treating in that sanatorium…»

(«Stalin’s banner» February 14, 1945 – Yalta).


After the global news there came express-notes, following up the diplomatic path of the leaders of the USA and Great Britain from Crimea to Washington and London. There are some headlines:


«The statement of Prime-Minister of the Great Britain, Sir Churchill»[3], «The message to the chairman of the Soviet of People’s Comissars of USSR I. Stalin from the President of the USA, F. Roosevelt», «A report of the White Housw about negotiations of Churchvill with Roosevelt in Alexandria», «To the sojourn of Roosevelt and Churchill in Egypt», «The return of Churchwill to Great Britain»…


There are several annotations of the foreign political observers in newspapers: «Ordr» (France), «Struggle» (Yugoslavia), «PM» (USA), «Yorkshire» (Great Britain). Actively printed and spread quotations of the statesmen and public organizations of the west countries excite minds of ordinary people:


«…Grew, acting for the State Secretary while Stettinius was away, claimed that "everybody can feel happiness, getting the information about the Crimean Conference”… The Congress in New-York published the statement, saying that the results of the Conference "will increase the utinity of the american people for the support magnificent achievements of Roosevelt, Stalin and Churchill”. The Head of the south-american union marshall Smuts defined the declaration of the Conference as the document in which "there shines a new light”. 

(«Red Crimea» - February 20, 1945).


Crimean people not only receive the information. They analize it, ask questions, write to the editorial stuff of their newspapers. Their interest is genuine. As an answer to the most often questions, a special matherial is published, explaining all the features of the europen politics in details:


«Agreement between united governments concerning prisoners of war and civillians», «What is the main point of the agreement between marshal Tito and Subasic», «Reinforcement and broadening of the fronts of anti-German coalition».


Carefully described visits of Eden and Stettinius to Moscow, their interviews and messages with emphasized respect and attention are given.

But nothing last forever. Americans and British gradually disappears from Crimean newspapers. The last report was lyrical and was published on March 23, in "Red Crimea”. It was about a walk through the three palaces in Yalta where the meetings held.

The tragic death of President Roosevelt left a tray in everybody’s hearts. With his death the romantic relationships turned into quarrelsome family squabbles… There came the divorce that stretched for dozens of years, well-knowed as "Cold War”.

[1] The text is translated by Marchuk A., the bachelor of Philology Crimean University for Humanities (Ukraine, Yalta)

[2]The material is given at the disposal of the author by the head of the local historydepartment of the Crimean republican establishment "Franko universal science library” (Ukraine, Simferopol) Maksimushkina N.  

[3]The statement, made before departure from Crimea on February, 14. Was already published in the newspaper "Red Crimea” on February 16.  

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