M. A. (History),
PhD in Philosophy
Lector of Crimean
University for Humanities
«YALTA AFFAIR» OF THE
SOVIET MAN WITH THE WEST IN THE 1945.
Conference, 1945: actual issues of history, law studies, political science,
culture studies and philosophy / materials of the international
scientific conference Yalta-45/13 (Simferopol,
Ukraine 23-27 April, 2013 )
/ edited by Oleg K. Shevchenko . – Simferopol: publishing
house К.О.Ш., 2013. – P. 138-143.
February, 1945, there occurred an event, that left a scar in the world history
– the meeting of «the Great Men» in Yalta:
the President of the USA F. Roosevelt, the prime-minister of the Great Britain
W. Churchill and the marshal of the Soviet Union I. Stalin. This event burnt
the consciousness and lives of millions of people in Europe and Asia, reshuffled dozens of political regimes like the
card batch and changed the borders of dozens of States. Many wrote about it
since the publication of the results of the confernce… But I am willing to
concede I can depart from the custom. I shall not concern the delicate
political aspects, that are used to quiver in the ideological breeze of Washington, London, Warsaw, Moscow.
shall try to draw my attention not to the powerful noblemen or honored leaders
of the East\West, but to the ordinary people, lives of which were changed by
the events of the Yalta
conference. The people, that were visited by the marshalls, generals, admirals,
ministers of the "bourgeois-capitalistic, hostile world”, headed by the
President of the USA and the prime-minister of the Great Britain. The people,
that the western reader doesn’t know about and can only make up some things
about them… naïve things.
people are the people of the Soviet Union. To
be more exact – the people of the small peninsula on the south of Ukraine – the Crimea.
The people of the towns and villages – builders, bakers, salespeople, for whom
the geographical points of the "Yalta
meetings” are not abstract, they are their homeland. And the February of 1945 –
that’s not the date in the past, but their natural habitat.
most rare historic records will tell us about that people, forming their
knowledge about americans and british people. For example, we can take the
newspapers of that time that count only 2-3 copies.
The newspapers, printed in small towns and tiny villages damaged after the war.
The newspapers, published by the groups of journalists, who organized their own
publications… The newspapers that were printed in the geographically and
spiritually nearness to Yalta.
the first time people of crimean towns knew about the meeting of I. Stalin, F.
Roosvelt and W. Churchill in the beginning of February. The people of Feodosia
read about that in the leading article of their newspaper "The Victory” on
February 9, 1945.
«The President of the United States of America, the
Premier of the Soviet Union and the Prime Minister of the Great Britain
accompanied by their chiefs of staff and three ministers of the foreign affairs
and other Counsellors are conferring near the Black Sea… The conferences are
hold without brakes. The conference began with the military parleys… The negotiations also concern problems, connected
with setting forth lasting alliance…».
some days came tragic news:
airplane with all the members of the Churchill’s Secretariate crashed.”
LONDON, February 8 (TASS). As Rater agensy tells, it is
officially announced in London, that in the result of the airplane crash, 12
people died, 5 people are missing and considered to be dead too. 5 more people
are injured. The airplane crashed on February 1. Among the dead people there
were 6 members of the ministry of the foreign affairs, including one woman, 4
officers of the War Office, one more officer and one pilot. Four members of the
crew are missing. All these people were going to the meeting of the Heads of
the 8th of February this information was published in London and immediately printed on the first page of the Yalta’s newspaper
"Stalin’s banner” on February 10, 1945 and in the Feodosia’s "Victory” on
February 11, 1945.
tension rised, rumors spread. And the culmination were the publications of the
events of the conference. During next days the text of the conference got
to absolutely all crimean newspspers:
Simferopol, "Red Crimea” – February 13.
– "Bolshevist banner” – February 15.
– "For the Big Crop” – February 15.
Kerch – "Kerch worker” – February
region – "Kirovets” – February 18.
region – "Stalin’s way” – February 20.
in all parts of crimea people organized political meetings, discussions of such
magnificent news. The reaction of people in Crimea
without any commentaries are well-shown in the reportings of those years:
«The statement from the Conference of three united
governments was met by all the people with the inspiration and delight….People
organized a meeting in Evpatoria… They were listening to each word of the
historic statement… Everybody wanted to tell their opinion and to share their
banner» February 18, 1945 – Evpatoria).
«The chief of the machine-shop of the red-bannered
artel "Mechnic” A. Poshupailo claimed: "The Conference statement of the Heads
of the three united governments inspired our crew for the new labour deeds”.
Victory» February 18, 1945 – Feodosia)
people of the specific professions and
status were seized with the enthusiasm:
«In the sanatorium "Proletarian” was held a meeting.
More than 70 people took part in this meeting. The resume of the Conference
were met with applause… Then there was held a meeting of the people who were
treating in that sanatorium…»
banner» February 14, 1945 – Yalta).
the global news there came express-notes, following up the diplomatic path of
the leaders of the USA and Great Britain from Crimea to Washington
There are some headlines:
«The statement of Prime-Minister of the Great Britain,
Sir Churchill», «The message to the chairman of the Soviet of
People’s Comissars of USSR I. Stalin from the President of the USA, F.
Roosevelt», «A report of the White Housw about negotiations of Churchvill with
Roosevelt in Alexandria», «To the sojourn of Roosevelt and Churchill in Egypt»,
«The return of Churchwill to Great Britain»…
are several annotations of the foreign political observers in newspapers:
«Ordr» (France), «Struggle» (Yugoslavia),
«PM» (USA), «Yorkshire» (Great Britain).
Actively printed and spread quotations of the statesmen and public
organizations of the west countries excite minds of ordinary people:
«…Grew, acting for the State Secretary while
Stettinius was away, claimed that "everybody can feel happiness, getting the
information about the Crimean Conference”… The Congress in New-York published
the statement, saying that the results of the Conference "will increase the
utinity of the american people for the support magnificent achievements of
Roosevelt, Stalin and Churchill”. The Head of the south-american union marshall Smuts defined the
declaration of the Conference as the document in which "there shines a new
Crimea» - February 20, 1945).
people not only receive the information. They analize it, ask questions, write
to the editorial stuff of their newspapers. Their interest is genuine. As an
answer to the most often questions, a special matherial is published,
explaining all the features of the europen politics in details:
«Agreement between united governments concerning
prisoners of war and civillians», «What is the main point of the agreement
between marshal Tito and Subasic», «Reinforcement and broadening of the fronts
of anti-German coalition».
described visits of Eden and Stettinius to Moscow, their interviews and messages with
emphasized respect and attention are given.
nothing last forever. Americans and British gradually disappears from Crimean
newspapers. The last report was lyrical and was published on March 23, in "Red Crimea”. It was
about a walk through the three palaces in Yalta
where the meetings held.
tragic death of President Roosevelt left a tray in everybody’s hearts. With his
death the romantic relationships turned into quarrelsome family squabbles…
There came the divorce that stretched for dozens of years, well-knowed as "Cold